Administration in Jammu Kashmir
After independence of India, Jammu Kashmir was made a separate state. Now the administration of this state is under the control of State government like any other state of India.
On 5th August 2019, the Modi government announced to scrap Article
370 which gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir and proposed that the
state be bifurcated into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and
Ladakh. The Union Home Minister, Mr. Amit Shah Shah, who introduced the
Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation bill, said the union territory in
Ladakh will have no legislature like Chandigarh. The other Union
territory of Jammu and Kashmir
will have a legislature like Delhi and
Come let us find out such interesting facts about the set up of administration of Jammu Kashmir.
Did You Know: Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which once was governed under the Article 370 of Indian Constitution. This article gave autonomous status to Jammu Kashmir. Due to this, the Parliament of India could neither increase nor decrease the borders of Jammu Kashmir!
Legislation of Jammu Kashmir
Governor of Jammu Kashmir is selected by President of India on recommendation from Central Government. Chief Minister of state is the head of state for executive purposes. Legislature of this state is Bicameral. It is constituted of lower house called Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly and Upper house known as Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council.
Council of Ministers in Jammu & Kashmir
Councils of Ministers in Jammu & Kashmir are responsible for the administration of the state.
They are led by the chief minister. Councils of Ministers in J&K consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ministers', junior ministers, called 'ministers of state' and, rarely, deputy ministers.These ministers hold
different portfolios depending upon their merits.
Currently Jammu and Kashmir is under governor’s rule. President Ram Nath Kovind approved governor’s rule in Jammu and Kashmir on 20th June 2018, a day after the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ended its alliance with the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). With this term of council of ministers headed by Chief Minsiter Mehbooba Mufti came to an end. Soon after she submitted her resignation to the governor. Satya Pal Malik was the last Governor of united Jammu and Kashmir State. GC Murmu was sworn in as the first Lieutenant-Governor of Jammu and Kashmir following the buifurcation of state into two Union territories. Radha Krishna Mathur has been named as the Lieutenant-Governor of Ladakh. The two Union Territories were created after the bifurcation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir on August 5.
Did You Know: The Former Chief Minister of Jammu Kashmir, Omar Abdullah was the youngest CM of this state!
Satya Pal Malik was the last Governor of united Jammu and Kashmir State.
GC Murmu took oath as the first Lieutenant-Governor of Jammu and Kashmir following the buifurcation of state into two Union territories.
MPs and MLAs in Jammu Kashmir
While Upper house has strength of
36 members, Lower house has 87 MLAs in Jammu Kashmir. Out of these
members, 46 represent seats in Kashmir valley, 37 from Jammu, and 4 from Ladakh region.
Did You Know: Unlike other states in India, Jammu Kashmir legislative assembly runs for tenure of 6 years instead of 5 years!
The Legislative assembly is convened by speaker of the
House and Chief Minister is the Leader of House.
Members of Vidhan Sabha in Jammu Kashmir
Here is the list of all the members of Vidhan Sabha till now:
Haveli Ajaz Ahmad Jan (JKNC)
Mir Saifullah (JKNC)
Abdul Haq Khan (JKPDP)
Chowdhary Mohd. Ramzan (JKNC)
Abdul Rashid Sheikh (Independent)
Taj Mohi-ud-din (INC)
Javaid Ahmad Dar (JKNC)
Mohd. Ashraf Ganaie (JKNC)
Nazir Ahmad Khan (JKNC)
Nizam-ud-din Bhat (JKPDP)
Mohd. Akbar Lone (JKNC)
Syed Basharat Ahmad (JKPDP)
Muzaffar Hussain Beigh (JKPDP)
Ghulam Hassan Mir (JKDPN)
Iftikhar Hussain Ansari (JKPDP)
Mian Altaf Ahmad (JKNC)
Omar Abdullah (JKNC)
Farooq Abdullah (JKNC)
Peer Aafaq Ahmad (JKNC)
Mubarak Ahmad Gul (JKNC)
Ali Mohd. Sagar (JKNC)
Shamima Firdous (JKNC)
Nasir Aslam Wani (JKNC)
Farooq Abdullah (JKNC)
Mohd. Irfan Shah (JKNC)
Javaid Mustaffa Mir (JKPDP)
Aga Syed Ruhullah (JKNC)Beerwah Shafi Ahmad Wani (JKPDP)
Hakeem Mohd. Yasin PDF
Sharief Abdul Rahim Rather (JKNC)
Mushtaq Ahmad Shah (JKPDP)
Zahoor Ahmad (JKPDP)
Mohd. Khalil Bandh (JKPDP)
Syed Bashir Ahmad Shah (JKPDP)
Mehbooba Mufti (JKPDP)
Abdul Razaq Wagay (JKPDP)
Sakina Itoo (JKNC)
Mohd. Yousaf Rather (CPI(M))
Abdul Gafar Sofi (JKPDP)
Late Mufti Mohd. Sayeed (JKPDP)
Kokernag Constituency:: Peerzada Mohd. Syed (INC)
Mohd. Sartaj Madni (JKPDP)
Ghulam Ahmad Mir (INC)
Peerzada Mansoor Hussain (JKPDP)
Abdul Rehman Bhat (JKPDP)
Rafi Ahmad Mir (JKPDP)
Tsetan Namgyal Ind.
Nawang Rigzin (INC)
Qamar Ali Akhoon (JKNC)
Feroz Ahmad Khan (JKNC)
Sajjad Ahmad Kichloo (JKNC)
Ghulam Mohd. Saroori (INC)
Abdul Majid Wani (INC)
Mohd Sharif Niaz (INC)
Ashok Kumar (INC)
Vikar Rasool Wani (INC)
Abdul Gani Malik (JKNC)
Reasi Baldev Raj (BJP)
Gool Constituency: Arnas Chowdhary Ajaj Ahmad Khan (INC)
Balwant Singh Mankotia JKNPP
Krishan Chander (INC)
Harsh Dev Singh JKNPP
Lal Chand (BJP)
Jagdish Raj Sapolia (BJP)
Charanjit Singh (Independent)
Manohar Lal Sharma (INC)
Durga Dass (BJP)
Yash Paul Kundal JKNPP
Surjit Singh Slathia (JKNC)
Jugal Kishore (BJP)
Raman Bhalla (INC)
Jammu East Constituency::
Ashok Kumar Khajuria (BJP)
Jammu West Constituency:
Prof. Chaman Lal Gupta (BJP)
Ashwani Kumar Sharma (Independent)
R.S. Pura Constituency:
Prof. Gharu Ram Bhagat (BJP)
Sham Lal Chowdhary (BJP)
Sukh Nandan Kumar (BJP)
Domana Bharat Bhushan (BJP)
Sham Lal Sharma (INC)
Tara Chand (INC)
Radhay Sham Sharma (JKNC)
Zulfikar Ali (JKPDP)
Rajauri Shabir Constituency::
Ahmad Khan (INC)
Rachhpal Singh (JKNC)
Mohd. Aslam (INC)
Sardar Rafiq Hussain Khan (JKPDP)
Administrative Set Up of Jammu Kashmir
For administration purposes, Jammu Kashmir is divided into three regions, Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh
. It has 22 districts collectively under these regions. There are 2 Municipal corporations and 9 municipal councils in the state. Apart from these, there are 21 municipal boards to look after administrative system in remote areas of Jammu Kashmir. In short, it can be said that administrative set up of this state is quite well planned for development of Jammu Kashmir as a whole.
Administrative Departments of Jammu Kashmir
The state government in Jammu Kashmir is diversified to cover all the requisite services required for better running and development of state. These departments are headed by ministers of state and responsible officers who work diligently for their portfolios. The departments are:
This department ensures good governance in state through transparency and accountability in government departments. It frames citizen charter and publishes them with details of responsible person at division and district level along with state level. It also looks after monthly tour dairies of district heads. It also stays updated about the public grievances for follow up with respective department.Website Link
It looks after the livestock, poultry and dairy of Jammu Kashmir. The department is entrusted with all matters related to their production, safety, and development as well as implementation of central schemes and programs regarding the same.Website Link
To tap on the agricultural richness of Jammu Kashmir, this department has been set up. It works to enhance the income of farmers and increase productivity of crops. It makes technology accessible to local farmers and encourages them to introduce diversification in crops. It also works to give boost to allied sectors of agriculture in state.Website Link
It ensures maintenance and operations of aircrafts used by state government ministers including Chief Minister of Jammu Kashmir.
It also co-ordinates with Central Ministry for development of airports/aircrafts in areas like Leh, Kargil, and valley areas.Website Link
Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution
It provides food grains and kerosene to the residents of state, including those residing in remotest areas. It also controls supplies and market prices of essential commodities. The department has set up a Redressal Agency to handle consumer complaints and rights. It also has Legal Meteorology wing for regulation of sale of packages goods, and checking of weights and measurements.Website Link: https://consumeraffairs.nic.in/
This department facilitates registration of cooperative societies in state. It also ensures smooth working of these societies in all spheres like dairy, agriculture, medical, education, housing, poultry, banking, transport, labor, etc. It takes actions as defined in The Jammu and Kashmir Cooperative Societies, Act of 1989 and The Jammu and Kashmir Self Reliant Cooperatives Act of 1999.Website Link: https://jkcooperatives.nic.in/
This department was formed in 1968 and reorganized in 1972. It looks after repair and maintenance of quarters, bungalows, commercial units, and government buildings. Currently, there are 1248 buildings in Srinagar and 3167 buildings in Jammu under this department.Website Link: https://www.jkestates.nic.in/
This department is entrusted with smooth running of elections in the state. It is headed by Chief Electoral Officer who is assisted by Deputy Chief Electoral Officer and Assistant Chief Electoral Officers for both Jammu as well as Kashmir region.Website Link: https://ceojk.nic.in/
It ensures smooth development of state by making resources accessible to all the government departments. Also, it implements fiscal reforms for financial stability in Jammu Kashmir. It is headed by Minister of finance and there are secretaries to assist him along with field directorates.
Website Links: https://jakfinance.nic.in/
General Administration of J&K
Government of Jammu Kashmir has set up Department of General administration to look after the smooth functioning of entire state. This department is entrusted with all duties related to public services and general administration. It is under direct control of Chief Minister of Jammu Kashmir. Other notified authorities controlling this department are the Chief Secretary of State and Administrative Secretary who is an officer in rank equivalent to Commissioner of government in Jammu Kashmir. Then there are special Secretaries of Administration, cabinet, Legal, and Monitoring Wings. These secretaries are assisted by Deputy Secretary of each wing separately.
Health and Family Welfare
This department is working hard for implementation of health and family welfare schemes initiated by central government. It includes NRHM or National Rural Health Mission in Jammu Kashmir.
For this purpose, department of health and family welfare has taken steps like Rogi Kalyan samitis, better rural infrastructure, decentralized planning, and doorstep health delivery system in state. This department also has portfolios like disaster management and health education under it.
Website Link: https://jkhealth.org/new2017/
This department was set up way back in 1881. In the present context, it works for preservation of forests, expanding tree cover, supply of timber wood, cultivation of medicinal plants, promotion of eco tourism, conservation of bio diversity, revenue generation, research, and better forest management in Jammu Kashmir.Website Link: https://www.jkforest.com/jkf/index.asp
Housing and Urban Development
This department was established in 1970. It manages the framework of policies related to urban development of state. It also makes policies for urban housing, investments in this sector, and facilitating adequate housing schemes.
Website Link: https://jkhudd.gov.in/
Industry and Commerce
It works for sustainable development of industry and commerce in state. It encourages all the regions to participate in this growth.
Also, this department induces investments in industries and creation of human resources. Handicrafts and handlooms of Jammu Kashmir are also promoted by it.Website Link: https://jkindustriescommerce.nic.in/
Department of Information Technology is one of the most primary departments for better governance. In Jammu Kashmir, this department ensures e-governance through capacity building. It has undertaken major projects like development of IT parks, biometric attendance, NeGP, and CPIS in state.Website Link
Labour and Employment
For welfare of labourers and working class in Jammu Kashmir, this department is working with 22 central legislations for improvement of socio economic conditions of working class in the state. There are boards and government bodies to this effect. These bodies are Provident Fund Organization, State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), State Labour Department, Jammu Kashmir Building and Other Construction Welfare Board. It is headed by the Labour Commissioner.
Website Link: https://jklabouremp.nic.in/
It looks after administrative control of districts, Kargil and Leh of Ladakh region. There are two Autonomous Hill Development Councils of these districts headed by Deputy Commissioner of district. It manages administration and other allied department of region along with monitoring of essential materials reaching to Ladakh. It also governs the election to both these hill councils.Website Link: https://jkladakhaffairs.nic.in/
Did You Know: Ladakh is the largest region of Jammu Kashmir. As such, for administration of this region, state government has set up a separate department of Ladakh Affairs. People from this region have long been demanding the status of Union Territory for Ladakh.
Planning and Development
It is a nodal agency that ensures bridging the gaps of inter - regional and inter -district development projects. It works with principle of Single Line Administration for decentralized planning in state. It makes annual plans and five year plans. Also, it looks after project appraisals, evaluation studies, district development boards, monitoring of periodical reports, and liaison with Central Government.Website Link: https://www.jandkplanning.com/
Power Development Department
It is entrusted with power transmission and distribution in state. There are separate units to manage these functions in all three regions of Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh. These units are Electricity maintenance and rural electrification wing, System and operation wing, commercial and survey wing, planning and design wing, and TTIC wing.Website Link: https://www.jkpdd.gov.in/
Public Service Commission
Public Service Commission of Jammu Kashmir was established in 1957. Members of this commission are appointed by Governor of Jammu Kashmir for term of five years or till age of 65, whichever earlier.
It conducts exams for civil services and appointments.
It is consulted for promotions, transfers, and disciplinary matters as well.
Public Works Department
This department works to develop roads, bridges, buildings and public infrastructure in state. It also ensures compliance with safety standards and maintenance of these structures. It is divided into two divisions for Jammu and Kashmir province. It also has separate Chief Engineer for each division.Website Link: https://pwdrbjammu.com/
Irrigation and Flood Control
This department under Public Health Engineering works for implementation of schemes like
AIBP, NRDWP, Uniform Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Protocol, Water Quality Training, etc.Website Link
For revenue administration of state, Jammu Kashmir is divided into 2 divisions of Jammu and Kashmir. These divisions have districts. Districts are further segregated into 82 tehsils and 257 niabats. It is the custodian of government land and land records. It completes documentation, surveys, and also ensures implementation of laws and policies related thereto.
Website Link: https://jkrevenue.nic.in/
This department came into being through Panchayati Raj system in this state. Now, it works to implement central and state government schemes like Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY), National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), Sampooran Gramin Rozgar Yojna (SGRY), Integrated Watershed Development Programme (IWDP - Haryali), Indira Awas Yojna (IAY), Total Sanitation Campaign, BADP, CDF, and MPLAD.Website Link: https://jk.gov.in/jammukashmir/?q=content/department-rural-development-and-panchayati-raj
Science and Technology Council
This Council formed in 1986 works for identifying new technologies in various spheres of governance, promotes science and technology on state, prepares pilot plans, promote indigenous entrepreneurs in this field, promote research and development, knowledge pooling, etc. It also conducts various programs to promote science in the state.Website Link: https://jksandtcouncil.nic.in/
Service Selection Board
Rules for this department have been formulated under SRO 194, 1992. They are applicable for state cadre posts, divisional cadre posts, and district cadre posts. Members of this board are elected by state government.Website Link: https://www.jkssb.nic.in/
This department was formed in 1960 to address the grievances of weaker sections of society. It works for their uplift in society and to remove anomalies towards them. It has several departments and field agencies that include Women Development Corporation, Directorate of Social welfare, Gujjar and Bakerwal Advisory Board, J&K State Welfare Board, etc.Website Link: https://jksocialwelfare.nic.in/
This department is entrusted with promotion of tourism in state of Jammu Kashmir. It prepares schemes for development of required infrastructure. Also, implementation of these schemes and up gradation of this infrastructure is looked after by JK Tourism Department.Website Link: https://www.jktourism.org/
This department manages the working of J&K State Road Transport Corporation, J&K Motor Vehicle Department, and J&K Motor Garages department. It works with the aim of providing accessible and efficient transport services to people of state. It also makes policies and programs for the same.Website Link: https://www.jktransport.nic.in/
Municipal Corporations in Jammu Kashmir
During 19th century,
Municipality of Jammu Kashmir was formed by Lord Rippan. Later in 1886,
two municipalities were formed at Srinagar and Jammu under Municipal Act
of 1886. Later on, Jammu and Kashmir Regulation of 1913 was formulated
and reforms were introduced in municipalities of both Jammu and
Srinagar.Jammu Municipal Corporation
came into being in 1983 and the city was divided into 71 wards for
municipal services. It is headed by Municipal Commissioner. Srinagar
Municipal Committee was made Municipal Council in 1956. Srinagar
Municipal Corporation was formed in 2003 with Commissioner as its head.
J&K Municipal Corporation Act of 2000 governs these corporations. It
has laid down the duties and functions of corporations for providing
civic amenities to people.
Police in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Police Department is entrusted with duty to ensure peaceful law and order in the state. It is an important department under state government. J&K police has long history of peace restoration and gallantry displayed by its officers. In 1873, for the first time, formal police force was formed in Srinagar
. It has one police officer called Kotwal and 14 Thanedars working under him. They were assisted in their duties by chowkidars and harkars in the old city. In 1913, an imperial police officer was appointed on deputation and First Inspector General of Police was elected. Mr. Broadway was the first IG of Police in Jammu Kashmir and continued as such till 1917. Till 1947, 10 IP officers were appointed in J&K Police. The strength of police deparment has increased tremendously since then. Currently, it has force of more than 83, 000 policemen.
Organization of J&K Police
In J&K Police, command is vested with Director General of Police. He is the in charge of police administration and also advises government regarding any matter of law and order. For police administration, state is divided into two zones, viz, Jammu Zone and Kashmir Zone. Each of these zones is headed by Zonal Inspector General. The zones are further sub divided into 7 ranges. These ranges are headed by Deputy Inspector General. The Police Ranges in Jammu Kashmir are:
- North Kashmir
- Central Kashmir
- South Kashmir
These DIG of respective ranges also look after the police administration at district level. Each of the districts has Superintendent of Police as its head. Currently, there are 10 police districts in Jammu zone and 15 in Srinagar zone. For better penetration of department, district police is divided into sub divisions that are headed by Officer in rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police. Then, there are police stations and posts. The state has 193 police stations and 158 police posts at present.
J&K Police Headquarter
This headquarter is controlled by DGP who is assisted by Inspector General (Headquarter), IG (Personnel and Training), Deputy Inspector General (Administration), DIG (CIV), and other officers in the rank of assistant Inspector General of Police. All the aspects of police administration are controlled from this police headquarter in Jammu Kashmir.
Wings of J&K Police
Various wings under Jammu Kashmir Police department for effective police administration are:
Jammu Kashmir Armed Police
It is a force deployed in times of urgency for maintaining law and order or combating militant activities. This force is also used to deploy armed static guards at vital institutions, places, and areas to avert any fatal attack. It is headed by an officer in rank of Additional Director General of Police.
Jammu Kashmir Traffic Police
This police force is deployed to ensure smooth traffic in major cities and highways of state. It regulates the daily traffic and implements the laws related thereto. It is governed by an officer in rank of Inspector General of Police.
Jammu Kashmir Railway Police
This force is entrusted to maintain law and order at platforms. It looks after safety of railway tracks and other property in state. The department is headed by officer having rank of IGP.
Crime Branch - J&K Police
This wing has an officer in rank equivalent to IGP. There are two police stations under this branch, at Jammu and Srinagar. The duties of this branch include investigation in criminal cases of public significance, supervising SCRB, control of dog squad, and collection of crime data and supervising crime photograph cell.
Technical Wing - J&K Police
It is entrusted with maintenance and installation of police telecommunication grid in control rooms, police stations, police wings, and headquarters. It is supervised by IGP (Technical Services).
Security Wing – J&K Police
This wing provides security to vital areas, persons, and installations during times of emergency. Since inception of militancy in the state, this wing has become quite significant to look after the security to the protected persons and their families. It is headed by ADG/ IGP (Security).
Civil Defense, Home Guards, State Disaster Response Wing – J&K Police:
It serves multiple purposes of maintaining law and order, traffic control, and protection of life in the state. It also holds training programs for home guards and civil defense volunteers to help in the times of crisis or natural calamities. It is headed by DGP and assisted by ADGP (CD/HG/Auxiliary Force).
Courts in Jammu Kashmir
For judicial administration in Jammu
Kashmir, there is an apex court called Jammu and Kashmir High Court and
22 district courts located in all the districts of state. The High Court
of JK was established in 1943 by Maharaja Hari Singh. Lala Kanwar Sain
was its first chief justice. In present context, seat of this high court
shifts between both the capitals of state, Jammu and Srinagar. It
possesses sanctioned strength of 14 judges having tenure till attaining
62 years of age.
Chief Justice and judges of Jammu Kashmir are
appointed through Presidential composition method with conformation from
Hon’ble Chief Justice of India and Hon’ble Governor of Jammu Kashmir.
Hon’ble Mr. Justice M.M. Kumar is the current Chief justice of state.
For subordinate judiciary, Jammu and Srinagar regions have court of
District and Sessions Judge with Chief Judicial Magistrate and Munsiff
Courts for other cities under these regions.
Prisons in Jammu Kashmir
Prisons in Jammu Kashmir are managed by
Prisons Department of state. The department is headed by Inspector
General, Prisons. It is entrusted with upkeep of prisons and safe
custody of inmates in all state prisons. The state has 13 prisons in
total. Out of these, two are central jails located in Kotbalwal of Jammu and Srinagar. There are eight district jails in the state at:
Apart from these, there are 3 sub jails in this state. These sub
jails are situated in Reasi, Kishtwar, and Hiranagar. New jails are
anticipated in cities like Anantnag, Kargil, Pulwama, Doda, and
Kishtwar. The total capacity of these jails collectively is 2775
inmates. As per new Jail Manual of state, the department is focusing on
reformation of the prisoners through vocational training and
rehabilitation programs. Under these programs, literacy schemes and
adult education programmes are run by IGNOU in state. Vocational
training is imparted in candle making, carpet weaving, tailoring,
typing, embroidery, black smithy, carpentry, and electrician.Inspector General of Prisons
Office: 0194- 2457969 (Srinagar), 0191-2561004 (Jammu)
This is the administrative set up of Jammu Kashmir state. Along with its
distinctive beauty, the state is also unique in its governance and
Administration in Leh
Administration in Anantnag