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Profile of Jammu and Kashmir

Know about Jammu and Kashmir


Jammu and Kashmir is the topmost state in India. It is distinct and significant in terms of geography, tourism, and politics. The state borders with two neighboring countries which increases its importance militarily. This 5000 years old state is admired for its scenic beauty and rich history. Although it has faced many turbulences in its past, yet Jammu and Kashmir is back to normalcy now. The state is rich in agriculture and produces the best apples, walnuts, and saffron in India. Apart from all these, it has vivid culture that exudes warmth and ethnicity. In the recent few years, Jammu and Kashmir has also shown economic growth as a major contributor to national GDP. In short, it is a state that is growing in every arena. Let us delve deeper to know more about Jammu and Kashmir.

History of Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu Kashmir has always swayed people with its natural beauty and simplicity. This paradise has unearthed the most striking revelations related to history of Indian sub continent. In its historical monuments, chronicles of its past are represented with full glory. The state comprises of three regions viz Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh. Each has its own distinctive history. When combined, they take you to the era marked by grandeur of its edifices, magnificence of its temples, richness of its erstwhile rulers, and atrocities of its invaders. Amidst all this, the present day history of this land amazes you with the catastrophic effects it has laid on the people of Jammu Kashmir.

History of Jammu Kashmir


Let us take a walk down the glorious history of each region in Jammu Kashmir:

The Princely State of Jammu Kashmir

This state was established during era of 1820 to 1858 AD. This state was quite simulated in its identity as it constituted disparate religious beliefs and ethnicities. Each region of this princely state had its own beliefs. Ladakh was predominantly Tibetan in ethnicity with Buddhism as religion. Jammu was a mixed bag with Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims in equal numbers. Kashmir valley was dominated by Sunni Muslims and Baltistan by Shia Muslims. With quashing of rebellion of 1857 by British, this princely state was shifted under British throne like their counterparts across the country.

Jammu and Kashmir During Independence of India

During 1925, Maharaja Hari Singh ascended to throne of Jammu Kashmir. When India got independence in 1947, like other princely states, Jammu Kashmir was also given free will to choose between the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Many revolts surfaced in various parts of Jammu Kashmir during that turbulent time. The most prominent one being at Poonch, where people revolted against joining Indian Union and formed Azad Kashmir Government. Maharaja Hari Singh was in a fix as either ways, he had to suffer revolts and logjams by his people.

Modern History of Jammu Kashmir

Hence, he decided to enter into a standstill agreement with Pakistan. In October of 1947, Pashtun rebels of Poonch invaded Kashmir with intention of forcing Maharaja to accede under Pakistan. But Maharaja chose otherwise and accepted to move under Union of India. Soon after accession of Kashmir, Indian Army threw away these rebels out of major parts of state. But this accession was conditional as Kashmir had become a disputed territory till then. It was to be ascertained by plebiscite. However, this accession was not accepted by Pakistan.

Later on, many attempts were made by UN as well to stabilize and resolve the issue of Kashmir on request of the then Indian Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru. But the dispute is still unsolved. In 1949, Maharaja Hari Singh left the administration of Jammu Kashmir and gave it in hands of Sheikh Abdullah, leader of National Conference which was the largest political party in state. However, Kashmir became the bone of contention for Pakistan who fought three lost battles with India. This also marked the beginning of militancy that turned paradise into hell for more than 25 years.

History of Jammu

The region of Jammu was prosperous and flourished under Dogra rulers of Kashmir. It has major share in modern history of state. Though, ancient history of Jammu was less turbulent than Kashmir valley. It can also be said that this is the little known facet of Jammu that is still shrouded in anonymity. Till today, not many evidences of its prehistoric and ancient era have been found.

Pre Historic Era of Jammu

There are excerpts regarding holy city of Jammu in Epic Mahabharata as well. In Akhnoor, several excavations have unearthed evidences of Harappan culture in this region. In similar excavations across Jammu region, it has been found that Jammu was ruled by several great dynasties that included Kushans, Maurya, and Gupta.

Ancient and Medieval History of Jammu

King Bahulochan ruled this region during 9th Century AD. He built the mighty Bahu Fort on banks of Tawi River during that era. With passage of time, his rule flourished. Jambulochan was the brother of King Bahulochan.

A Short Tale of the Birth of Jammu

One day, King, Jambulochan went on a hunting spree. On the banks of Tawi, he noticed a deer and tiger drinking water together and then they left to their separate ways. This incident impressed the king so much that he decided to settle his capital on the banks of this river. He considered it to the place where any living creatures had no anomalies against each other. Thus, foundation of Jammu was laid down in 9th century.
Maharajas of Jammu Kashmir

Jammu was a prosperous land with lots of unexploited resources. It served as base for the traders going to Kashmir valley and other Asian regions. As such, it was laid on the famous silk route of trade in medieval era. The prosperity of Jammu attracted several rulers from Delhi sultanate as well. Shahi, Ghaznavi, and Timurs ruled over Jammu region for its fertile land and strategic location. Then, it was the era of Mughals in Jammu during 17th century. They ruled over here for a long time. After that, Sikhs invaded the region to establish their rule in 1819. It was also the time of British ascent.

Modern History of Jammu

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Jammu and Mian Kishore Singh was a nobleman in his court. Gulab Singh was his son and a respectable lieutenant in army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Due to Treaty of Amritsar, he became the king of Jammu in 1846 and annexed Jammu with rest of Kashmir to form a single state. He commenced the Dogra rule in Jammu region and extended it to entire Kashmir. This rule continued in Jammu till independence of India in 1947.

History of Kashmir Valley

The legendary beauty of Kashmir valley is enchanting and invigorating. Throughout its history, the valley has been described as heaven by one and sundry. The greatest Kashmiri poet, Kalhana described Kashmir as the “Best destination in Himalayas where sun also shines gently”. Like a precious jewel encrusted in the crown of Himalayas, the valley has been revered as the land of valor, pristine beauty, and supreme happiness.

Etymology of Kashmir

The etymology of Kashmir can be explored through Hindu mythology. Even in Rajatarangini by Kalhana, it is mentioned that Kashmir was named after the mythological sage, Rishi Kashyapa. It is believed that Kashmir valley was a huge reservoir or lake. The lake was known as Satisar after Goddess Sati. Rishi Kashyap was the son of Marichi, who was son of Lord Brahma. When Kashyapa visited this place, he cut the gaps within hills of Varaha Mula (Baramulla) to drain Satisar Lake. Then, he asked the Brahmins to settle over the new found land of valley. These settlements were given the name of Kashyapapur or Kashyapmar. This was later distorted to become Kashmir.

Interesting Fact!!! Kashmir has always been known by different names in different parts of world. In many western countries, it is still known as Cashmere while ancient Greek rulers called it as Kasperia!!
History of Kashmir Valley

Prehistoric Era of Kashmir

In Burzahom, many evidences of neolithic and megalithic phases have been found. They date back to 3000 BC. The evidences revealed in these excavations include mud plasters and stone tools. They suggested dominance of hunting and cultivation in this region.

Ancient History of Kashmir

Before 300 BC, it is believed that Kashmir was ruled by Gonanda Dynasty. It was the same era as Mahabharata. Earliest account of Kashmiri history also tells about Uttara Kurus who ruled over this land called as land of gods in those times.

During 300 BC, when Alexander invaded India, King Porus asked king of Kashmir, Abhisara to help him in fighting against Alexander. Later, when Porus was defeated, Abhisara submitted to Alexander who in turn, left him to rule Kashmir.

There was advent of Mauryan Empire under Chandragupt Maurya later. When his grandson, Ashoka became the king, he laid foundation of Srinagri (Srinagar) and Buddhism in Kashmir valley. The region was also influenced by Kushana and Huna Empires.

During 4th and 5th century, Buddhism had spread to countries like China and Tibet from where pilgrims used to visit the stupas of Kashmir.

During 502 CE, Huns under Mihirakula conquered major parts of Kashmir and even destroyed many Buddhist shrines here. During 7th century and later centuries, many poets, scholars, and philosophers emerged from the land of Kashmir.

Historical Evidences of Kashmir


Karkota Dynasty witnessed their rise in 8th century. Founder of this dynasty, Durlabha Vardhana was married to daughter of last king from Gonanda Dynasty. His son Chandrapida was referred as king of Kashmir in an imperial order of China. Lalitaaditya Muktapada was his successor and a powerful ruler in history of Kashmir.

He conquered many parts of valley by defeating Tibetans and Turks ruling over them. He was a great king who established one of the most powerful kingdoms of Kashmir. It was during his reign that splendid temple complexes were built all across the valley. Among them, Martand Sun Temple in Anantnag holds distinctive place. This dynasty ruled in Kashmir till mid of 9th century. It was the end of mighty Karkota dynasty.

It was followed by Utpala dynasty laid by Avanti Varman. He was a great general who fought many valiant wars and increased agricultural activities in this region. This dynasty ended in 939 AD giving rise to another ruler named as Yaskara. He was the king who also founded mathas (monasteries) where students from Aryadesa used to come for studies and reside. His rule was followed by Didda, who was a strong queen and wife of Parvagupta. With her demise in 1003 AD, Lohara dynasty flourished in Kashmir.

The era from here was marked by invasion from Mahmud Ghazni. He took away many prisoners from Kashmir and made two failed attempts to conquer fort of Lohkot, in 1015 and 1021. Second Lohara dynasty was founded in Kashmir during 1105 AD.

During 1320 AD, Tibetan ruler Rinchana who was killed and his wife became the ruler of Kashmir. Several political upheavals occurred and led to downfall of this dynasty. In 1338, Muslim rule was commenced in the valley under Shah Miri Dynasty. This era was also marked by spread of Islam by sufi saints.

Medieval History of Kashmir

This part of Kashmiri history is known for the religious intolerance displayed by Muslim rulers. The most prominent of them all was Sikandar. During his reign, his Muslim generals destroyed the temples and killed many Brahmins in valley. With reign of Shahi Khan in 1420, the prosperity of Kashmir was restored. He showed exceptional religious tolerance. He was a learned scholar of Sanskrit and Persian. He invited artists from Persia and other parts of Central Asia to teach the arts like Paper Mache, wood carving, and carpet weaving to locals of Kashmir. After his death in 1470 AD, political instability of this region revisited. During this era, Muslim saints like Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani also preached Islam here.

Medieval History of Kashmir

This condition prevailed till 1540 AD when Kashmir was invaded by Mughals under Mirza Haider, General of Humayun. He was also killed due to feudatories in this region and in 1579; Yusuf Khan became ruler of Kashmir. During 1589, Emperor Akbar visited here to lead fully fledged rule of Mughals in valley. This was the time when architectural excellence of Mughals was spread across Kashmir in the form of gardens, forts, mosques, ad palaces in Mughal style of architecture. When Aurangzeb ascended to Mughal throne in 1658, Kashmir once again became the battle ground of religious intolerance.

Later in 1738, Durrani Empire was established in Kashmir under Abdul Khan, a general of ahmad Shah Abdali. It weakened Mughal stronghold in valley. With death of Abdali, Afghani dominance was also destabilized here. Following era can be rightly called as darkest part of Kashmiri history. Shia Sunni riots broke out in valley. Hindu leaders were mercilessly killed and Kashmiri Pandits fled to other parts of country.

Modern History of Kashmir

The end of this era came with rise of Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1819. They conferred the jagir of Jammu upon Dogras under Gulab Singh. During first Anglo Sikh war of 1845, Gulab Singh emerged out as a trusted mediator for Sir Henry Lawrence. Under one of the treaties, British made Gulab Singh, the Maharaja of Jammu Kashmir. This treaty helped British largely as Maharaja Gulab Singh helped them largely during mutiny of 1857. Dogras helped British and in return their reign continued in Kashmir. Another significant development of Dogra rule was annexation of Ladakh to merge into this state. Under Zorawar Singh, General of Gulab Singh, region of Ladakh was conquered by the dogras in two attempts only. By the end of 1840, other areas like Baltistan was also captured after defeating King of Skardu and Maharaja Gulab Singh gained control over whole of Kashmir.

History of Ladakh

The exquisite landscape of Ladakh, known as largest Cold Desert in world, is uncanny in its prehistoric era. The only known evidences of Ladakhi history reveals its existence as independent state for 900 years beginning from 10th century.

Ancient History of Ladakh

The history of Ladakh began with Dardi population as mentioned by Herodotus, a Greek historian. Citations about Dardi were made by Admiral of Alexander as well. It was believed that Dards were producers of gold, which can be related to gold washing in areas of Ladakh and Baltistan.

Histiry of Leh Ladakh

The earliest revelations of political history of Ladakh are found in Uvima Kavthisa that suggested Ladakh to be part of Kushana Dynasty in 1st century. Xuanzang, a Chinese monk, mentioned Ladakh by name of Marsa. During 7th century, Chinese empire appointed a Tibetan Commissioner in Ladakh leading to proper administrative set up in 662. Major clash occurred between Tibetan forces towards East and Chinese influence from Central Asia. Administration was reorganized in this region during 8th century. In 737, Tibet attacked areas of Gilgit and seized it successfully. In 747, this stronghold of Tibet was weakened by Chinese invasion led by Gao Xianzhi. But in 751, Gao was defeated by Arabs and Chinese influence in Ladakh descended. During this era, Ladakh was also an important center for trade. In 842, Tibetan Monarchy subsided in this region.

During the same era, first Ladakhi dynasty was formed by Nyima Gon, who represented royal house of Tibet. During his reign, Ladakh came under clear influence of Tibetan people and culture. After that, they intended to head towards North West India in parts of Kashmir for spread of Buddhism. It is believed that Ldedpal Hkhor Btsan with strong intent to spread Buddhism in Ladakh for which he laid foundation of 8 monasteries in this region. However, not much is known about other kings of this dynasty. Fifth ruler from this empire was Lhachen Utpala who invaded parts of Baltistan, Mustang, and Kulu.

Medieval History of Ladakh

This was the era marked by rise up of Namgyal Dynasty. During earlier parts of this era, Muslim invaders weakened the Ladakhi rulers. Ladakh was divided into Lower Ladakh and Upper Ladakh. A valiant ruler from Basgo, Bhagan, defeated king of Leh to reunite these two parts of Ladakh. Later, he adopted the surname of Namgyal, which means Victorious. The dynasty established by him flourished in Ladakh and it still exists. During 1555 to 1575, King Tashi Namgyal built a strong citadel atop Namgyal Peak.

Histiry of Ladakh Region

But in actual terms, glory of Ladakh and its culture as restored during reign of Sengge Namgyal, a strong ruler. He rebuilt the gompas and other shrines destructed in Ladakh by Muslim invaders coming from Central Asia. The legendary Hemis Monastery was also rebuilt by him. He expanded his kingdom to the vast expanses of Spiti and Zanskar making Leh Palace his official seat. Later on, with growing impact of Mughal Empire, he was defeated by them. His son Deldan Namgyal averted 5th invasion of Dalai Lama in Chargyal, with the help of Mughals.

Modern History of Ladakh

In the beginning of 19th century, Mughal Empire declined. During that era, Maharaja Gulab singh gained significant control over Ladakh under invasion led by his general, Zorawar Singh. King of Ladakh was forced to exile and take shift to Stok Palace. As a result, Ladakh also came under Dogra Dynasty and it was merged into Jammu Kashmir in 1846. After independence and partition of India, Pakistan made several failed attempts to infiltrate from regions of Kargil and Zanskar.

The unrest was not caused by Pakistan alone. During 1949, China also closed the fabled silk route from India to Central Asia. It was the same route through which caravans of textiles, spices, narcotics, carpets, etc. moved from Punjab to Central Asian cities like Khotan and Yarkhand. During those times, the markets of Leh used to bustle with merchant activities. Many arts also flourished in Ladakh during that period.

Modern History of Ladakh

When Chinese forces invaded Tibet, Dalai Lama and other refugees from Tibet took shelter from India. In 1962, China occupied major portion of this region and built many roads between Tibet and Sinkiang. With closure of Ladakh Tibet border by China, this association reached to its end in this region. Since 1947, Ladakh is governed by state government of Jammu Kashmir. Though, the people of Ladakh always demanded for status of Union Territory on account of bias and apathy suffered by them. In 1993, Ladakh was given the status of Autonomous Hill council leading to formation of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council in 1995

Also Read: History of Leh | History of Jammu | History of Srinagar

Geography of Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir adorns the Indian Territory like a jewel in its crown. The magnificent state is home to many valleys, lakes, and soaring peaks of mountains. Its geographical existence is believed to be quite different in history. A series of earthquakes is said to have created this land of varied topography. Many mythological tales also suggest the same. In present context, Jammu Kashmir is divided into three main regions, viz Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh.

Geographical Conditions of Jammu and Kashmir


Kashmir valley is separated from Ladakh by Himalayan ranges while Pir Panjal ranges separates it from plain of Northern side. The entire state spans over 640 kms from north towards south and 480 kms east to west. The strategic importance of its location is marked by the various territories bordering it on all sides. It has China and Tibet on its eastern side, Punjab towards its south, Himachal Pradesh towards south west, and Pakistan towards its west.

Mountains and Passes in Jammu and Kashmir

Mountains are the most important feature in geography of Jammu Kashmir. In particular, the valley of Kashmir is surrounded by high mountains on all sides. Towards south, there are Shivalik ranges and snow capped peaks flank it from north. The main mountain ranges in this state are:

Karakoram Ranges

At the lofty height of 8615 meters above sea level, these ranges separate the state from Tibet and Russian Turkistan. It has Hindukush ranges towards northwest. This is the place where K2, the second highest peak of the world is also located. The people of Ladakh reach Tibet through Khardungla Pass and Changla Pass situated in these ranges.

Nun Kun Ranges
At the height of 7055 m, these ranges have Kargil district of Ladakh towards its north west. Nun Kun peak is strategically located between Ladakh and Kashmir.

Zanskar Ranges
These ranges separate Kashmir valley from Indus valley. They have height of 600 meters above the sea level and Zojila Pass lies in between.

Harmukh Mountains
This range is a sub range of Himalayas. At height of 5141 m, it lies between Kishan Ganga valley and Jhelum River.

Mountains of Jammu and Kashmir

Pir Panjal Mountain
This is the most significant mountain range in Jammu Kashmir. Pir Panjal has length of 2621 kms and breadth of 50 kms which makes it quite magnificent as well. It separates Kashmir from outer ranges of Himalayas. It has many passes located on it. These include Banihal Pass, Baramulla Pass, and famous Jawahar Tunnel.

Afarwat Mountain
This mountain is situated in Gulmarg valley. From its peak, the famous Alpather spring originates and flows down into Wullar Lake.

Nanga Parbat
This range in Gilgit region has elevation of more than 8100 meters. The entire range is devoid of any vegetation which gave its name as well.

Water Bodies in Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is the state famous for its fresh water lakes, springs, and rivers. These water bodies of state accentuate its scenic beauty. They are major source for irrigation and make the Kashmir valley, rich in agriculture. The state also has many Himalayan glaciers that are indispensable part of its existence.

Rivers in Jammu Kashmir

Water bodies in Jammu and Kashmir

The state has many rives flowing through it. Jhelum is the main river of valley. It originates from Verinag Spring of Anantnag district. From Khanabal, many tributaries join the river up to Wular Lake. From the other side of Wular, it enters Baramulla. Srinagar is situated on its banks. Main tributaries of Jhelum are Vishav, Lidder, Dudhganga, Sindh Nullah, Ferozepur Nullah, and Sukhang. Other important rivers draining this state are Zanskar River and Indus River.

Lakes in Jammu Kashmir

Rivers and lakes of Jammu and Kashmir

There is nothing wrong to call Jammu Kashmir, the land of enchanting lakes. It has some of the most picturesque lakes of the world. At its high altitudes, these lakes are perfect picnic spots and camping sites. The state has largest fresh water lake, Wullar and famous Dal Lake of Srinagar. Apart from these two, there are many other lakes like Sheshnag Lake, Kausernag Lake, Nagin Lake, Neelang, Tarsar and Marsar Lake, Anchar Lake, Gangabal Lake, Vishansar Lake, etc.

Springs in Jammu and Kashmir
The entire Kashmir valley is rich in numerous springs. These springs have always been a point of attraction for visitors to this state. Many of these springs are present in Anantnag district which is named after them. The main springs in J&K are Verinag, Kokernag, Vicharnag, Achabal, Tulla Mulla, Harmukt Ganga, Vasaknag, etc.

Also Read : Water Bodies in Jammu Kashmir

Topography of Jammu and Kashmir

Demographics of J & K

Formed on: 26th October 1947
No. of Districts: 22
Area: 222,236 km2 (85,806 sq mi)
Area Rank: 5
Winter Capital: Jammu
Summer Capital: Srinagar
Population: 12, 548, 926
Elevation: 327 m (1,073 ft)
Latitude: 32.17" and 36.58" North
Longitude: 73.26" and 80.30" East to West
Time Zone: IST (UTC + 5:30)
ISO Code: IN-JK
Census Code: 10
GDP (In Millions): $ 9130
Literacy Rate: 68.74%
Official Language: Urdu, English, Dogri
In Jammu Kashmir, Pir Panjal forms the middle and outer hills with outer plains. From Spiti and Lahol, Zanskar Mountain lies towards eastern region, and Karakoram Mountain is in the north direction. The valley is oval in shape with many irregularities caused by its landscapes. On average, it is 1700 meters above the sea level with soaring mountains flanking it on all sides.

The valley has its only outlet at Baramulla, from where Jhelum flows out as a narrow gorge. Kashmir also has some volcanic formations towards its northern side. There are sedimentary rock formations in Lidder valley, Banihal, Baramulla, and Verinag section.

These rock layers are marked with presence of many fossils. The valley has Karewa formations towards its south and west. The highest Karewa is situated near Pir Panjal.

Jammu Kashmir has loamy soil which is low in clay content. For agriculture, the soil is mostly treated with legumes and green manure to increase its productivity. It has high magnesia in its composition. The main soil types found in Kashmir valley are sandy, loam, clay, peats, Karewa soil, lemb, and floating garden soil. The soil of this region is naturally rich in organic content and is excellent for cultivation.

Varied Landscapes of Jammu and Kashmir


The soil of Jammu Kashmir is rich in minerals as well. The most important minerals found in the mountains of Jammu Kashmir are:

Lignite: It is found in the valleys of Baramulla, Laligang, Lolab, Handwara, Chowkibal, Nagbal, Nichahama, Tangmarg, and Budgam. There are rich deposits of lignite in the valley.

Copper Ores: They are found in Anantnag, Lashtil Hills of Baramulla, Sambal, Lolab Valley, Aishmuqam, and Handwara.

Iron Ore: These deposits are found in areas of Khrewa, Handwara, Sopore, Uri, Karnah and lolab valley.

Limestone: The limestone deposits in Jammu Kashmir are known for their superior quality. They are used for building stone, cement, and mortar. These deposits are mostly found in regions of Anantnag, Doru, Sonmarg, Ajas, Achabal, Biru, Verinag, etc.

Gypsum: This mineral used for making Plaster of Paris is found extensively in areas of Baramulla, Anantnag, Lachhipora, and Uri.

Ochre: It is found mostly in parts of Uri tehsil. Large deposits of ochre have been extracted in this area until now.

Graphite: This mineral used for making pencils is found in Uri, Piran, Karnah, and Malogam.

Sulphur: Sulphur is mostly found in Ladakh and in springs of Anantnag and Khrewa.

Marble: In Jammu Kashmir, marble is usually present in brown to dirty grey. The deposits are found in different areas of Kupwara district.

Forests of Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu Kashmir is divided into three regions, each having distinct topography. As such, forests distribution and vegetation also differ according to these geographical distributions. The state is rich in forests that cover 20% of its total geographical area. The largest forest cover is found in Doda district and smallest is in Budgam district. In total, forests cover around 2236 sq km area in the state.

Pine trees are most densely located in the state. They cover more than 19, 200 sq km of land while some non coniferous trees cover 946 sq km. The other prime vegetations are of Fir, Kail, Chir, and Deodar. These forests are mostly concentrated to areas where rainfall is higher and soil is wet. The state also has some scrub forests on areas with low rainfall.

Geographical Features of Jammu and Kashmir

Forests in Jammu Kashmir are major sources of many medicinal herbs that include digitalis, artemisis, rubus, balladona, menthol, padophyllum, etc. They also provide timber, fodder, and fire wood to the people. Apart from these, these dense woods also serve as livelihood due to many forest based industries in the state.

Main vegetation of Jammu Kashmir includes chinar, deodar, walnut, poplar, walnut, mulberry, apple, etc. Anantnag and Baramulla districts are densely covered with forests. Also, many health resorts are situated amid the forests of Jammu Kashmir in areas like Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Gulmarg, Verinag, Achabal, and Kokernag.

Climate of Jammu and Kashmir

Seasonal Division of Jammu Kashmir

The seasons in this state can be divided into six parts, each spanning for two months. These are:

1. Spring: Mid of March to Mid of May
2. Summer: Mid of May to Mid of July
3. Rainy: Mid of July to Mid of September
4. Autumn: Mid of September to Mid of November
5. Winter: Mid of November to Mid of January
6. Ice Cold Season: Mid of January to Mid of March
The state of Jammu and Kashmir has transitional climate caused by its varied landscape. It has steep rise of elevation from 300 meters to 6900 meters within its geographical boundaries. On one hand, it has hot climate of Jammu and on the other hand, there are cold desert regions of Ladakh. This transition in climatic conditions is caused by reasons like relief caused by lofty mountain ranges that prevent moisture from entering the valley.

Second reason is rain caused by monsoon winds in outer hills and plains. Only strong monsoon winds can cross the Pir Panjal ranges while in winters, Mediterranean winds bring heavy snow fall in the valley. Thirdly, forest cover of Jammu Kashmir largely influences the temperature to fall in the state. High altitude of Kashmir valley also makes its climate milder and rainfall also varies with this change of elevation.

In Jammu Kashmir, winters are literally chilling and long. The season is marked by heavy snowfall as well. The season has duration from November till March. From 15th of March, spring season begins here. During this season, rainfall is heavy and it is perfect time for sowing the crops. July and August witness around 70% of the rainfall in state. The temperature falls and haze covers the entire valley.

Climatic Conditions in Jammu and Kashmir

Annual rainfall in valley is 75 cm and coldest months from December to March have temperature below zero degree Celsius. Srinagar has high rainfall due to its nearness to Arabian Sea. With breakup of Southwest clouds, region of Ladakh is quite cold and also dry. In this region, winters are very cold with temperature falling below minus 20 degrees or even minus 40 degrees. The rivers freeze during this season. However, in summers, days are comparatively hot with temperature around 20 degrees Celsius.

During winter months, winds from south and south east blow strongly all over the state causing shivering cold. In Jammu Kashmir, August is the hottest month with temperature around 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Highest humidity is experienced in December month at 80% while in May; it is lowest at 71%. The months from September to November have longest sunshine hours in the valley.

Also Read: Geography of Jammu
Geography of Leh | Lakes of Ladakh | Panong Lake | Tsarap Chu River

Society in Jammu and Kashmir

Government Welfare Advisory Boards in J & K

There are several boards and corporations setup under the Department of Social Welfare in Jammu Kashmir. They are:

1. Pahari Speaking People Development State Advisory Board
2. Gujjar and Bakarwals Board
3. OBC Advisory Board
4.
State Commission for Women
5. State Commission for Backward Classes
6. Social Welfare Board Schedule Caste Development Advisory Board
The population of Jammu Kashmir is consisted of all sections of society that include every caste, creed, and religion. Some people in Jammu Kashmir are under privileged, distressed, economically weaker, and handicapped.

These people are deprived from social equality as well. The government and socialites in the state have taken responsibility to offer such people the commitment of equality as an integral part of society.

Let us see the social responsibility carried away by the government, NGOs, and welfare society in Jammu Kashmir.

Department of Social Welfare in Jammu & Kashmir

Societal Welfare in Jammu and Kashmir

Social Welfare Department was set up in the year 1960 in the valley of Jammu & Kashmir. They address the section of society that is under privileged, facing mal nutrition, and deprived from the social rights. Special attention is given to handicapped individuals, women, aged person, and poor children. They make scheme to empower and develop tribal communities of Jammu & Kashmir by implementing various revival as well as social justice programs.

Social Welfare Schemes in Jammu and Kashmir

The government of Jammu and Kashmir is running many schemes for the benefit of under privileged people of the society. These schemes are aimed directly towards the sufferers. They are committed to resolve their issues and give them equitable rights within the society. Some of the main state run schemes are:

National Social Assistance Program
National social assistance program is supported by central government of India. It provides economic assistance to poor people. National Old Age Pension Scheme and National Family Benefit Scheme are implemented in all parts of state for people living below poverty line.

Under Old Age Pension scheme, people who are above 65 years of age and recognized BPL will be provided Rs. 325/- pension per month. The family whose earning members expired will also be eligible for this pension along with one time Rs. 10000/- remuneration under Family Benefit Scheme.

Integrated Social Security Scheme
Under Integrated Social Security Scheme (ISSS), the department is entitled to provide monetary assistance to physically handicapped, aged person and widow or destitute women. This scheme is sponsored by both central and state government equally.

Scholarship Scheme
Children belonging to scheduled caste, OBCs, or recognized as handicapped will be provided the aid for their studies in Jammu Kashmir. These schemes were extended to minor communities as well. To cut down the economic burden of education for economical weaker section is the prime motto of government. The schemes running under Scholar Scheme are Pre - Metric Scholarship, Post Metric Scholar, Pre - Metric Scholarship for Minority, Post Metric Scholarship for Minority, and Post Metric Scheme of Merit cum Means for Minority.

Aam Aadmi Bima Yojna
Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana Scheme is an initiative of central government which runs through the support of LIC. Under this scheme, people are given disability and death assurance, especially those who are unprivileged, homeless, and living in rural area. Here, people are given Rs. 30000/- natural death, Rs. 75000/- accidental death, Rs. 37000/- for partial disabled and Rs. 75000/- for permanent disabled individuals.

Prosthetic Aid Welfare SchemeWelfare Societies and schemes in Jammu Kashmir
Under Prosthetic Aid Welfare Scheme, handicapped individuals are provided with supportive equipments that increase their performance. Hearing aids, wheelchairs, artificial limb, tri-cycles, and other such equipments are offered to them for standing firmly in society.

Grant in Aid to Non Government Organization
Under this scheme, Non Government Organization working for social welfare since three years and registered under societies act were provided with funds to ensure construction and maintenance of homes for poor.

Financial Assistance to Gad Hanjis
Under this scheme, fisherman belonging lower income group are provided with nylon twine on annual fees ranging from Rs. 20 to Rs. 50.

Contributory Social Security Scheme
This scheme is implemented to provide social and financial security to marginal workers. Government and beneficiary need to deposit Rs. 100 each per month till 10 years. Thereafter, beneficiary will be entitled to get aggregate amount including interest after the completion of tenor.

Government Social Welfare Institutions in Jammu & Kashmir

Government has incepted various institutions and organization to work towards social welfare of people. They provide essential support to under privileged sections of society and strengthen them by endeavoring to fulfill their needs as well as vocational skills.

Cottage Industry Center
Cottage Industry Centers has been incepted at Doda, Kathua, Poonch, Udhampur, and Rajouri to give conventional skills of craftsmanship to the people.

Ladies Vocational Center
Deprived ladies in Jammu Kashmir are formally trained to make them self dependent for income. They provide vocational training for fashion designing, stenography, cutting, tailoring, knitting, embroidery, crochet work, and many such courses. Currently, this center is running in Jammu region.

Bal Ashrams
Bal Ashrams have been created in valley to provide support to orphans or underprivileged children. There are Bal Ashrams setup at Jammu, Udhampur, Reasi, Rajaouri, Poonch, Kishtwar, and Kathua in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Under this institution, they provide food, accommodation, medicine, books, coaching, and other important facilities for livelihood to children.

Social welfare by Government in Jammu Kashmir

Nari Niketan
Government’s Social Welfare Department has established Nari Niketan at Doda, Udhampur, Kathua, Poonch, Jammu, and Rajouri. Nari Niketan is aiming to provide accommodation, food, medicine, and other necessities of livelihood to destitute women in Jammu Kashmir.

Blind Home
Blind Home has been established in the region of Jammu to provide shelters for blind person. Blind individuals who do not have any support or guardian can live at this blind home. Bedding, clothing, medicine, books, etc. are offered free of cost to these unprivileged peoples.

Social Welfare Center
Social Welfare Centers are established in the state of Jammu Kashmir to provide special training to under privileged women. Under this training, women are provided stipend of rupees hundred during training period.

NGOs in Jammu and Kashmir

Social Welfare Organizations in Jammu Kashmir

Apart from government agencies, Jammu Kashmir also has many NGOs running in the state. These are the organizations formed by private individuals and recognized by government to work for welfare of the general public. These organizations offer their complete support and assistance in uplift of society from any kind of deprivations. Some of the noted NGOs working in Jammu Kashmir are:

Hope Disability Center (She Hope Society)
She Hope Society’s initiative Hope Disability Center is a non-profit and non-government organization that is working for under privileged people of Jammu Kashmir. Currently, Hope Disability Center is located in the region of Bandipora, Baramullah, and Kupwara along with its registered office at Ganderbal. Since decade they are organizing camps and awareness programs for unfortunate residents of valley. People who have disability or physical disadvantage are provided medical support as well as economic strength. They undertake rehabilitation of physically handicapped people, training programs for earnings, micro loan scheme for establishment, human right programs, social awareness, as well as promoting local artisans and their handicrafts.

Address:
Hope Disability Center
Wayil, Ganderbal, J&K

Pragya India
Pragya is one of the excellent non-profit organizations established in Ladakh. The team of Pragya organization is engaged in providing basic facilities and developing remote areas of mountainous region. They recognize the need and offer actual remedy to implement the corrective measures through intense research of that particular area.

Address:
Stok Palace Complex
Main Bazar, Leh

Youth Brigade Welfare Society
It is a non profit, non government and non religious society that endeavors social programs in the valley of Jammu Kashmir. The team of Youth Brigade is engaged in generating resources for social problems along with utilizing them for noble causes. They actively draw volunteers and experts to join hands to provide relief programs at remote areas of Jammu Kashmir. This organization is located in Reasi district and looks to provide intermediate support to this region and adjoining areas of Kashmir valley.

Address:
Youth Brigade Welfare Society
Reasi, Jammu Kashmir

Sheikh Ul alam Welfare Society
Founded by Bashir Ahmad Baba, Sheikh Ul Alam Welfare Society is one of the leading names in the valley. They are engaged in development of art & culture, child education, forest, health priorities, and human rights in Jammu Kashmir. They specially work for deprived peoples from backward classes in this region.

Address:
Sheikh Ul Alam Welfare Society
Budgam, Srinagar

Double Diamond Rural Urban Sanitation Society
Double Diamond Rural Urban Sanitation Society works in the field of children health care and disaster management program. Their main focus is to provide drinking water, literacy program, family welfare, vocational training program, women empowerment, and youth affairs. Under the chief functionary, Inayat Ullah Khan, the NGO is working full-fledged for social causes related to deprived people.

Help Foundation Srinagar
Help foundation is one of the recognized children welfare societies functioning worldwide. It has established its base in the state of Jammu Kashmir as well. The foundation works for orphans and unprivileged children of society. They have existence across the globe and intrinsic penetration in Indian community. In Srinagar, they are offering shelters, food, education, and upbringing of unfortunate kids in valley.

Address:
Shehjaar, Saidakadal, Srinagar

Al-Rasheed Memorial Society
Al-Rasheed Memorial Society (ARMS) is a charitable society that is incepted to provide social environment to unprivileged children of society. They offer uplift programs for poor and economically weaker sections of population. Team of this society is constantly working for prosperity and welfare of mankind in valley.

Address:
Sailan, Surankot, Poonch, J&K

Concern about Universal Social Empowerment (CAUSE) in Srinagar
Cause NGO is formed to engage social activists to its organization and work for better society in Jammu Kashmir. They raise the issues which have direct or indirect impact on social environment and general public. They fight against the evil system of society along with uprooting the refractory methods of treating women and poor children in society.

Compassion NGO
Compassion is founded under the well known social activist Sajat Bhat in Rajouri region. It is established to raise the issues related to human rights and animal cruelty. They speak and protest for animal welfare and injustice in society.

Address:
Near Girls Higher Secondary School, Ward No 8, Rajouri

Jay Kay Women Welfare Society
Jay Kay Women Welfare Society has been established in vale of Kashmir with the view to solve issues of society relevant to women. They aim to accentuate women empowerment, awareness programs, children rights issues, employment and health infrastructure in the region of Jammu Kashmir.

Janta Social Welfare Society
Janta Social Welfare Society is incepted in Srinagar with the vision of providing better lifestyle to rural public. They spread awareness of education empowerment among the new generation of valley. Development of rural women and children is the main objective of Janta Welfare Society.

Address:
Madin Sahib, Srinagar

Imam Hussain (AS) Foundation
Imam Hussain (AS) Foundation is established with a unique concept in Jammu & Kashmir. They provide vital support in public health services. They offer help of life saving drugs, medical aid, blood transfusion, and other such imperative support. They also provide pacemakers for needy heart patients in Jammu & Kashmir region.

Address:
Poloview, Srinagar

Indian Youth Climate Network
Under the leadership of Owaise Raheem, Indian Youth Climate Network is established to spread awareness in public regarding fragile climatic conditions of Kashmir. They take initiative to promote social health programs, sustainable development in valley, and preserve bounty environment for future.

Address:
Pedestrian Mall Road, Khonakhan, Dalgate, Srinagar

Green Scan Consultants Society
Green Scan Consultants Society is set up to uplift the farming communities in Jammu Kashmir. They redress the general issues of public and uplift the lifestyle of people living under poverty line. They educate farmers about correct use of water, water harvesting and management, along with raising voice for environment issues.

Duri Yateem Social Welfare Organization
A noble institution, Duri Yateem Social Welfare Organization is set up in the region of Ganderbal to house the orphans and unfortunate children of Jammu Kashmir. They also provide abode for disabled and physically challenged children who do not have any guardian.

Address:
Near Police Station, Kangan, Ganderbal

Conservation of Environment, Upliftment of Poor, Rural Development, Education & Health (CURE)
CURE NGO is incepted in the region of Channi Himmat in Jammu to raise voice against social issues and environment conservation. Rural development and strengthening of poor is the main aim of this organization.

Address:
Bhalla Colony, Channi Himmat, Jammu

Dr. Ambedkar Welfare Trust
This organization is also working for development of the underprivileged people of society in Jammu Kashmir. It organizes many awareness programs to educate the people regarding evils of society. Also, they help people to find ways for getting rid of these evils.

Address:
Nowshera, Rajouri

Hayat Welfare Society
Working with objective of serving humanity, this organization is promoting religious tolerance and widening the spectrum of unity in the state. It is also determined to eradicate the evils like communalism, religious bias through organizing seminars and conferences on these issues.

Address:
Main Market, Bus Stand, Pulwama

Also Read: Business and Economy of Jammu Kashmir
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